|Not included in the package||You can buy it in our store.|
|There is no on kit|
|Bottles in kit|
|10 bottles||10 IU.|
General Information and Effects
Effects of growth hormone on the tissues of the body can generally be described as anabolic (building up). Like most other protein hormones, GH acts by interacting with a specific receptor on the surface of cells. Increased height during childhood is the most widely known effect of GH. Height appears to be stimulated by at least two mechanisms: Because polypeptide hormones are not fat-soluble, they cannot penetrate cell membranes.
Thus, GH exerts some of its effects by binding to receptors on target cells, where it activates the MAPK/ERK pathway. Through this mechanism GH directly stimulates division and multiplication of chondrocytes of cartilage. GH also stimulates, through the JAK-STAT signaling pathway, the production of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1, formerly known as somatomedin C), a hormone homologous to proinsulin. The liver is a major target organ of GH for this process and is the principal site of IGF-1 production.
IGF-1 has growth-stimulating effects on a wide variety of tissues. Additional IGF-1 is generated within target tissues, making it what appears to be both an endocrine and an autocrine/paracrine hormone. IGF-1 also has stimulatory effects on osteoblast and chondrocyte activity to promote bone growth.
In addition to increasing height in children and adolescents, growth hormone has many other effects on the body:
-Increases calcium retention
-Strengthens and increases the mineralization of bone
-Increases muscle mass through sarcomere hypertrophy
-Increases protein synthesis
-Stimulates the growth of all internal organs excluding the brain
-Plays a role in homeostasis
-Reduces liver uptake of glucose
-Promotes gluconeogenesis in the liver
-Contributes to the maintenance and function of pancreatic islets
-Stimulates the immune system
-Increases deiodination of T4 to T3